Atopic Dermatitis

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Atopic Dermatitis


What is Atopic Dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis is a skin disease. When a person has this infection the skin turns out to be extremely itchy. Scratching leads to redness, swelling, splitting, sobbing, clear fluid, crusting, and scaling. Frequently, the skin gets worse (flares), and then it enhances or clears up (reductions).

Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of eczema, a term that portrays numerous sorts of skin issues. Atopic dermatitis is a common, often determined skin disease that affects a large level of the total population. Atopy is a special type of allergic hypersensitivity that is related to asthma, inhalant allergies(hay fever), and chronic dermatitis. There is a known hereditary of the disease, and it is more common in affected families. Criteria that enable a specialist to analyze it includes the typical appearance and distribution of the rash in a patient with an individual or family history of asthma and/or hay fever. The term atopic is from the Greek meaning "strange." The term dermatitis means irritation of the skin. Numerous doctors and patients utilize the term eczema when they are referring to this condition. Sometimes it is called neurodermatitis.

In atopic dermatitis, the skin becomes extremely itchy and inflamed, causing redness, swelling, vesicle formation (minute blisters), cracking, weeping, crusting, and scaling. This type of ejection is termed eczematous. Likewise, dry skin is a very common complaint in almost all those afflicted with atopic dermatitis.

Although atopic dermatitis can happen at any age, mostly it affects infants and young children. Once in a while, it might endure into adulthood or may really show up around then. In most cases, there are time frames when the infection is worse, called intensifications or flares, which are followed by periods when the skin enhances or clears up completely, called reductions. Many children with atopic dermatitis go into a permanent reduction of the disease when they get older, although their skin may remain dry and effectively irritated.

Points About Atopic Dermatitis:

  1. Atopic dermatitis is the most widely recognized dermatitis, a term that depicts many sorts of skin issues.
  2. The disease causes the skin to become extremely itchy. Scratching leads to redness, swelling, cracking, weeping, clear fluid, crusting, and scaling.
  3. Frequently, the skin gets worse(flares), and after that, it improves or clears up (remissions).
  4. Treatment usually incorporates prescriptions, appropriate skincare, and maintaining a strategic distance from things that cause allergies.
  5. Avoid scratching itchy skin, which worsens symptoms.
  6. You should not get the smallpox vaccine if you have atopic dermatitis.
  7. Intense atopic dermatitis produces sobbing, oozing plaques of extremely itchy skin.
  8. Chronic atopic dermatitis appears as thickened, elevated plaques of scaling skin.
  9. Oral antihistamines might be useful in breaking the "itch-scratch" cycle.


Who gets Atopic dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis is most common in infants and kids. But, it can happen to anyone. People who live in urban areas and dry atmospheres might probably get this disease.


What are the symptoms?

The most common symptoms atopic dermatitis are:

Dry and itchy skin.

Rashes on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees, and on the hands and feet.


Scratching the skin can cause:

  • Redness.
  • Swelling.
  • Cracking.
  • Weeping, clear liquid.
  • Crusting.
  • Tough skin.
  • Scaling.


What causes it?

No one knows what causes atopic dermatitis. It is passed down from parents (genetics). Your condition can also trigger symptoms. Stress can make the condition worse, but that isn’t the cause of disease.


Can atopic dermatitis affect the face?

Atopic dermatitis may affect the skin around the eyes, the eyelids, the eyebrows, and lashes. Scratching and rubbing the eye area can make the skin to change its appearance. Few people with atopic dermatitis build up an additional fold of skin under their eyes called an atopic crease or Dennie-Morgan fold. Other people may have hyperpigmented eyelids, which means that the skin on their eyelids darkens from the inflammation or hay fever(allergic shiners). Patchy eyebrows and eyelashes may result from scratching or rubbing.

The face is regularly affected in babies, who may drool excessively, and become irritated from skin contact with their abundant saliva.

The skin of a person with atopic dermatitis loses extreme moisture from the epidermal layer. Few patients with atopic dermatitis, lack of a protein called filaggrin that is essential in retaining moisture. This defective hereditary quality allows the skin to become extremely dry, which reduces its protective abilities. In addition, the skin is extremely susceptible to infectious disorders, for example, staphylococcal and streptococcal bacterial skin infections, warts, herpes simplex, and molluscum contagiosum (which is caused by a virus).

How is atopic dermatitis diagnosed?

At present, there is no single test to analyze atopic dermatitis, but your specialist may:

Ask about your medical history, including:

  • Your family history of allergies.
  • Whether you also have the disease, like, hay fever or asthma.
  • Exposure to irritants such as:
  • Wool or synthetic fibers.
  • Soaps and cleansers.
  • Some perfumes and cosmetics.
  • Substances, for example, chlorine, mineral oil, or solvents.
  • Dust or sand.
  • Cigarette smoke.
  • Sleep pattern issues.
  • Foods that appear to be related to skin flares.
  • Previous treatments for skin-related issues.
  • Use of steroids or other prescriptions.

Identify factors that may trigger flares of atopic dermatitis by pricking the skin with a needle that contains something that you may be adversely affected by (in small amounts).


How is it treated?

The objectives in treating atopic dermatitis are to heal the skin and avoid flares. You should look for changes in the skin to discover what medicines help the most.

Treatments can include:


  • Medications:
  • Skin creams or ointments that control swelling and lower allergic reactions.
  • Corticosteroids.
  • Antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacteria.
  • Antihistamines that make people drowsy to help stop nighttime scratching.
  • Drugs that suppress the immune system.
  • Light therapy.
  • Skincare that helps the skin to heal and keep it healthy.
  • Avoiding things that cause an allergic reaction.
  • Who treats it?
  • Atopic dermatitis might be treated by:
  • Family specialists or pediatricians, who can help analysis the disease or refer you to specialists.
  • Dermatologists, who have expertise in treating skin disorders.
  • Allergists, who specialize in allergies.
  • *Disclaimer- None of the information provided here is the substitute for any diagnosis or treatment by your health professional. Seek the advice of your qualified health provider or your physician in case of any critical or major health issue does not rely on this information in case of any emergency.

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Written by -

Padma Lekhi